明星资讯腾讯娱乐2017年11月20日 08:19:51
HONG KONG — China is abuzz with craft brewing, with small-scale operations popping up around the country and churning out beer tasting of everything from goji berries to green tea. 香港——在中国,精酿啤酒正在成为一种风尚,小型精酿作坊在全国各地纷纷冒出,酿造从枸杞到绿茶等各种口味的啤酒。But like many things in China, what’s new isn’t that new. In this case, it’s about 5,000 years old.但是就像中国的很多东西一样,新的风尚其实古已有之。大约5000年前,中国人就已经在酿造啤酒了。A group of researchers in China and the ed States have analyzed pottery vessels discovered at a site in Shaanxi Province and determined that they are the first direct evidence of a beer-brewing operation. And the ingredients they discovered are as eclectic as any trendy brewpub’s: broomcorn millet, tubers and a grain known as Job’s tears.中国和美国的研究人员对陕西省发现的一批陶器进行了分析,明它们是啤酒酿造活动的首个直接据。他们在陶器里发现了黍、根茎作物和薏米的成分,这样不拘一格的选材可以和当下的时髦啤酒酿造坊媲美。The scholars’ paper, which was published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ed States of America (PNAS), says the mix of ingredients was probably achieved through trial and error. The tubers, which included snake gourd root, contribute starch and sugars for fermentation and also add a sweet flavor to the beer, they wrote. 他们的论文本周发表在《美国国家科学院院刊》(Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,简称PNAS)上,研究者称这种成分组成可能是通过不断试错的方法获得的。他们写道,根茎包括丝瓜根,它可以促进淀粉和糖分发酵,给啤酒添加香甜口味。The study was based on analysis of a “beer-making tool kit” that includes a funnel, shards of pots and amphorae, and a pottery stove that would have been used for mashing. Radiocarbon dating of the Mijiaya site near the Chan River in Shaanxi Province dates it to 3400 to 2900 B.C.这项研究的对象是一个“啤酒制作器物套件组”,其中包括一个漏斗、一些阔口罐和小口尖底瓶的碎片,还有一个用于淀粉糖化的陶灶。根据放射性碳测年技术的测定,陕西省陈河附近的米家崖遗址介于公元前3400年到公元前2900年之间。A yellowish residue from inside the funnel and pot shards was analyzed to discern the ingredients. The starches showed signs of damage that resemble what happens in the process of beer brewing, the authors said.他们对漏斗和壶碎片上发黄的残留物进行分析,辨别它的成分。结果发现,残留物中含有很多出现损伤迹象的淀粉粒,与酿酒过程中淀粉粒的损伤特征类似。“It makes a very convincing case that this was a beer-making facility,” Patrick McGovern, scientific director of the Biomolecular Archaeology Project at the University of Pennsylvania Museum, told the blog PNAS Journal Club. He was not involved in the study. “这是很有说力的据,说明它们是酿酒器物,”宾夕法尼亚大学物馆(University of Pennsylvania Museum)生物分子考古项目的科学主管帕特里克·麦戈文(Patrick McGovern)对PNAS Journal Club客说。他没有参与这项研究。The presence of barley, which did not become an important subsistence crop until the Han dynasty, 3,000 years later, led the authors to suggest that alcohol production was an important reason for the grain’s introduction from western Eurasia, where it was first domesticated.大麦首先最初是在欧亚大陆被驯化的,在中原,直到3000年之后的汉代,大麦才成为了一种重要口粮作物,所以作者们认为,酿酒是中原从西域引入大麦的一个重要原因。“Beer was probably an important part of ritual feasting in ancient China,” one of the study’s authors, Jiajing Wang of Stanford University, told the Journal Club. “So it’s possible that this finding of beer is associated with increased social complexity and changing events of the time.”“啤酒可能是中国古代仪式盛宴的重要组成部分,”这篇论文的作者之一、斯坦福大学考古专业士生王佳静告诉Journal Club客。“我们在古代中原地区发现的酒,可以和当时发生的社会变化联系起来。”Although the brew remnants that were discovered are truly ancient, they are not the oldest that have been uncovered in China. Mr. McGovern and a team of scholars from China, Germany and the ed States wrote a 2004 paper for PNAS that analyzed 9,000-year-old pottery jars found in a neolithic village site in Henan Province called Jiahu. Based on their analysis, the jars held a rice, honey and fruit beverage. 虽然他们发现的这些酿造残留物的确来自古代,但却不是已发现的中国最古老的这类遗迹。在2004年的一篇PNAS论文中,麦戈文和一个由中国、德国和美国学者组成的团队对一些有9000年历史的陶罐进行过分析,它们来自河南省一个名叫贾湖的新石器时代村落遗址。据他们分析,这些陶罐曾盛载过用水稻、蜂蜜和水果酿造的饮料。Mr. McGovern worked with Dogfish Head Brewery in Delaware to recreate that recipe in a beverage known as Chateau Jiahu. 麦戈文与特拉华州的角鲨头啤酒坊(Dogfish Head Brewery)合作,复原了这个古代配方,用它酿造了一种名为“贾湖城”(Chateau Jiahu)的饮料。 /201605/446135Chinese companies are behind nine of the ten most lucrative mobile games in the Apple app store globally in terms of gaming revenue in May, an unprecedented dominance of the global gaming industry, according to a new report from data tracker App Annie.根据5月苹果应用商店全球游戏收益统计,在十大最吸金手机游戏排名中,中国企业出品的游戏占去九个,中国企业在全球游戏行业这种独占鳌头的盛况前所未有。King of Glory, Fantasy Westward Journey and Clash Royale are the top three mobile games, ranked by revenue.按照手机游戏收益排名,《王者荣耀》、《梦幻西游》和《部落冲突:皇室战争》位列前三。Monster Strike, Grand Order, Ghost, Clash of Clans, Eternal Myth, Candy Crush Saga and Tianlongbabu make up the rest of the top-ten ranking.《怪物弹珠》、《命运—冠位指定》、《幽灵》、《部落战争》、《神话永恒》、《糖果粉碎传奇》和《天龙八部》紧随其后。Except for Monster Strike, which is produced by Japanese firm Mixi, the other nine games all count Chinese companies as their backers.除《怪物弹珠》出自日本Mixi公司外,其他九个游戏都由中国公司参与持。China#39;s predominance in mobile games comes even though Chinese players account for only one quarter of mobile gaming revenue worldwide.即便中国手游玩家贡献的利润只占了全球利润的四分之一,中国手游依旧成功争夺了霸主地位。The global gaming market was valued at US1.1 billion in 2016, up 10% year-on-year.2016年全球游戏市场价值1011亿美元,同比增长10%。Chinese players contributed US.6 billion in revenues, the largest share, while U.S. players came a close second with US.1 billion, according to investment firm Atomico.根据调查公司Atomico的数据,中国市场的利润最大,高达246亿美元,美国市场略居其次,收益241亿美元。Tencent Holdings Ltd. is currently the biggest winner in the sector, backing five games among the top ten: King of Glory, Clash Royale, Clash of Clans, Candy Crush Saga and Tianlongbabu.目前腾讯集团是游戏领域的最,其中有五款排名前十的游戏都有腾讯参与持:《王者荣耀》、《部落冲突:皇室战争》、《部落战争》、《糖果粉碎传奇》和《天龙八部》。Its ascent in the gaming sector is testament to its international merger and acquisition strategy.腾讯在游戏领域的崛起为其全球并购战略的成功提供了有力明。 /201706/515628

China is building a factory so big that when it#39;s done, it will be able to accommodate the construction of four submarines at once-out of sight from military enthusiasts and spy satellites alike.中国正在建造的这个工厂是如此之大,一旦完成,可以同时建造四艘潜艇——军迷和间谍卫星都看不到。According to Popular Science, Bohai Shipbuilding Heavy Industrial Corporation is building the plant in Huludao, Liaoning Province. The place will have two parallel assembly lines. The gigantic hall reportedly is where China will begin construction on is latest attack submarine, the Type 095.根据大众科学网站报道,渤海造船重工集团正在辽宁葫芦岛建造这个工厂。该工厂将有两条平行的组装线。据报道中国将在这里建造其最新型的攻击潜艇095型。Despite having control over its Internet and press, the Chinese government has had enduring problems with military enthusiasts sneaking pictures of new ships and aircraft under development or construction. While some of this is useful to telegraph China#39;s broader intentions and give a hint of its capabilities, the rest of it is considered a nuisance. Building an indoor submarine factory keeps sensitive subjects such as the hull shape of a submarine or even the propeller design a secret.尽管控制着网络和媒体,中国政府依然无法阻止军迷偷拍建造中的新舰艇和飞机。虽然其中有些可以用来宣传中国更广泛的意图和宣示自己的实力,但是其余的那些则被认为是令人讨厌的泄密行为。所以建造一个室内的工厂就可以保守秘密,比如潜艇的外壳形状或者螺旋桨的设计样式。This does not necessarily mean China now has a submarine-building edge over the U.S. The U.S. Navy commissions about two submarines a year, each of which takes about three years to build. That puts U.S. submarine construction at about six at a time, ahead of this factory#39;s four. Of course, China builds submarines at other locations too, and may even build them a little faster.这并不意味着现在中国在潜艇制造上对美国有优势。美国海军每年大约役两艘新潜艇,每艘三年时间制造。也就是说美国一次建造6艘潜艇,领先于中国这个工厂的4艘。当然,中国也在其他地点建造潜艇,而且建造的速度可能会更快点。Speed isn#39;t everything. Even if China ends up capable of building more submarines per year than the ed States can, there#39;s the question of quality. The Type 095 is expected to be quieter that the second tranche of Los Angeles-class attack submarines that were built in the late 1980s, and Russian Victor III or Akula-class submarines built in the early 1980s.但速度并非一切。即使中国每年的潜艇建造量多于美国,质量上不一定好。这款095潜艇预计比80年代末期建造的第二批洛杉矶级攻击潜艇以及80年代初期建造的俄罗斯阿库拉级潜艇更安静。In other words, China is approximately 30 years behind the ed States in submarine quieting technology. Chinese submarines in the 1980s were about as quiet as American submarines from the 1950s, while modern American submarines such as the Seawolf orVirginia-class boats are so quiet they#39;re described as ;quieter at 25 knots than the Los Angeles class at pierside.; This is not a field where China has been able to close the gap.换言之,中国在潜艇静音技术上几乎落后美国30年。80年代中国潜艇和50年代美国潜艇一样安静,而现代美国潜艇比如海狼和佛吉尼亚非常之安静,被形容为“25节速度航行时都比在码头区的洛杉矶级潜艇安静。”在这一领域中国还无法缩小差距。 /201705/508446

The first quantum communications satellite developed by China is expected to launch in July of this year. The Beijing–Shanghai quantum private communications line will also be opened in the second half of this year, according to Pan Jianwei, academic at the Chinese Academy of Sciences, during an interview with China Youth Daily.由中国研发的全球第一颗量子通讯卫星将于今年七月发射。据中科院院士潘建伟在接受《中国青年报》的一次采访中透露,从北京到上海的量子保密通讯线路也将于今年下半年开通。According to Pan, this milestone means that a quantum communications network will be formed, and that 30 years of research on quantum information will be finally put to use. Pan said that quantum communication between the satellite and the ground will be achieved for the first time anywhere in the world.据潘建伟院士透露,这一里程碑式的成功意味着中国将建立一个量子通讯网络,对于量子信息长达三十年的研究终将投入使用。潘院士表示,中国将在全球首次实现卫星和地面基站的量子通讯。In recent years, quantum communications is considered to be supportive research for next-generation communication technology because of its transmission efficiency and absolute security. Pan said that, as quantum technology is indivisible and cannot be cloned, it may be implemented as an information carrier for the distribution of sensitive information, thereby guaranteeing the secure transmission of important content. Quantum communications research has become a focus and frontier of global research in physics.近年来,由于在传输效率和信息安全上具有显著的优势,量子通讯手段被认为是次世代通讯技术的基础。据潘院士透露,由于量子既不能被分割,也不能被复制,因此可以用来作为敏感信息的传播载体,从而保障从要信息的传输安全。量子通讯研究已经成为物理学界一个关注焦点和前沿性课题。China started developing its quantum satellite in 2011, and launched the quantum optical fiber communication network project, the Beijing–Shanghai line, in 2013. The Beijing–Shanghai quantum private communications line will cover a total length of over 2,000 kilometers, connecting a network of numerous cities including Beijing, Jinan, Hefei and Shanghai. It will be the world#39;s first wide-area optic fiber quantum private network.中国在2011年开始研发量子卫星,并于2013年开始了量子光纤通讯网络(北京-上海段)项目。从北京到上海的这条量子保密通讯线路总长达到了2000公里,连接了包括北京、济南、合肥和上海在内的许多城市的网络。这将是全球第一个广域光纤量子保密网络。According to Pan, the assembly of the quantum satellite has aly been completed. The satellite has passed electrical measurement and thermal balance testing, and is currently undergoing mechanical and magnetic testing in Shanghai#39;s Small Satellite Engineering Center.据潘院士透露,量子通讯卫星的装配工作已经完成了。这颗卫星已经通过了电测试和热平衡测试,目前正在上海的小卫星工程中心进行机械和磁力检测。;With further development, quantum communications should benefit millions of households in the near future,; Pan said, adding: ;I hope that within another 10 years of hard work, online transfers and payments can be guaranteed through quantum communication for every consumer.;潘院士表示:“随着进一步的发展,量子通讯将在不远的将来使数以百万计的家庭受益。我希望在十年之内,通过我们的艰苦奋斗,量子通讯可以保障每一个消费者的在线信息传输和在线付的安全。” /201606/447257



  If Back to the Future 2 holds your standards for technology there are a lot of things we should have by now -- one of them being flying cars. But while modified DeLoreans haven#39;t dotted the skies, Slovakia-based AeroMobil says we#39;ll be seeing flying cars on the markets soon as 2017.如果《回到未来2》让你把握住了科技的标准,那么我们现在应该有很多东西--其中之一就是飞行汽车。不过当改良后的德劳瑞恩还未形成燎原之势时,斯洛伐克的AeroMobil公司就已声明,飞行汽车将在2017年上市!Speaking at SXSW Interactive 2015, AeroMobil co-founder and CEO Juraj Vaculik talked about his company#39;s vision for a future where flying cars are just as ubiquitous as planes, trains, and standard automobiles.在2015年西南偏南大会上的讲话中,AeroMobil的联合创始人兼总裁尤拉伊·瓦库利克就谈到了该公司对飞行汽车未来的展望。他表示,飞行汽车将会像飞机、火车及标准汽车一样普遍存在。The company has aly unveiled a prototype for its ;Flying Roadster,; the AeroMobil 3.0. The two-seater functions as both a car and personal airplane, measuring at about 328 x 236 inches in airplane mode and 88 x 236 inches in car mode with its wings collapsed.该公司已经发布了飞行跑车AeroMobil 3.0的原型。这种双开门跑车既可以当汽车开,又可以变身为私人飞机,其大小尺寸在飞机模式时仅为328x236英寸,收起双翼变为汽车模式时仅为88x236英寸。The steel framework, carbon coating construction has a Rotax 912 engine under the hood with a top speed of 124 mph when flying and 99 mph on the road -- though Vaculik said the final version may be faster.这款车内部是钢架结构,外部是碳涂层,配置Rotax 912航空引擎,飞行时最高时速可达124英里,路面行驶最高时速可达99英里,但是瓦库利克表示,它的最终版本速度将会更快。Vaculik also emphasized the AeroMobil 3.0#39;s need for only 650 ft for takeoff and 160 ft to land -- meaning the vehicle can land in a field of grass or onto existing highways without the need for new or special airports.瓦库利克此外还强调称,AeroMobil 3.0仅需要650次的起飞测试和160次的降落测试,这意味着这部车可以降落草地、现有的高速公路上,无需新的或特殊的机场。He didn#39;t comment on the effect that having planes landing on the highways might have on rush-hour traffic but did say that AeroMobil is initially targeting medium-distance travel. It won#39;t take you cross country but it is plenty for a trip from say, LA to Vegas. Vaculik said the vehicle also runs on regular gasoline so there will be no need to find a special refueling spot.虽然没有谈到让飞机降落到高速公路上会对上下班高峰期产生影响,不过他表示,AeroMobil的最初定位是中等距离的行程。它也许不能带你横穿整个国家,但是带着你从洛杉矶到却是绰绰有余。瓦库利克表示,这部车加普通汽油也可正常行驶,所以不存在到处找特殊燃料站点的问题。While the Flying Roadster is still in development -- the working prototype is currently undergoing recommends real flight testing -- Vaculik was confident his company could hit its 2017 mark.虽然飞行汽车还处在发展阶段,但样机模型目前已经在进行真实的飞行测试--瓦库利克对他们公司可以达成2017年的目标非常自信。But those excited at the possibility of flying your car to Thanksgiving dinner in two years should start saving now. The company is initially targeting the Flying Roadster at elite consumers. The price must be very expensive.但是那些对两年之内能驾驶着飞行汽车直接飞到感恩节餐桌旁而激动不已的人,你们还是从现在开始攒钱吧。因为该公司的飞行汽车最初定位是高端消费者,而且价格将会非常昂贵。 /201607/455827

  愿意惹的麻烦As someone who subscribes to and s a dozen personal finance blogs, I have noticed something that many of those in the blogosphere would probably see as a wonderful problem to have. As both a hard worker and a diligent saver, I have been able to save the maximum retirement amount and the maximum SEP amount each year. I no longer meet the income level to contribute to a Roth, but you better believe I did when I was able. I also fund my 3 kids’ 529 plans every month. Educational charities and my kids’ PTA also get nice donations every year.After doing this for a decade or more, I realize that I love the idea of saving the money. I have prepaid my mortgage so that I have only a year to go to pay off a 15 year loan in 8 years. I also have non-retirement assets that have experienced the ups and downs of the uncertain economy.Poor me, right?What astounds me is that for the first time in my life, I can do whatever I want, but I don’t know what to do. I never prepared myself for this day. After 15 years’ of diligent and careful saving, I find that the spending of money doesn’t provide the joy or happiness I thought it would.Don’t get me wrong. The freedom to not worry when a car breaks down or I need a suit is satisfying. I love my house even more now that it is about to be all mine. My favorite luxury is actually using a service to do our laundry. For .00/lb they get it, wash it, fold it, and return it. I know it isn’t worth it, but both my wife and I hate doing laundry.For all you savers, please pay attention — do your best to figure out why you are saving the money. For me it was always the ability to stop working early — something I coveted when I was 25. Now that I am about to turn 40, I realize that I like my jobs, and that I don’t do as well without structure in my days. So yes, I saved, but now what?Here are 7 questions to consider in advance:What are you going to do once your financial moves come to fruition?What will you concentrate on next?What will make you happy?What will you do with the money?What aspects of my financial planning will be difficult to change?How have your priorities changed over time?And finally—how are they likely to change going forward?I always thought I could turn off the saving, frugal, careful part of my brain once I reached a certain level of financial security. However, I am increasingly aware of the fact that if you pursue something diligently for 15 years, it becomes who you are.Be careful in what you wish for. Please comment if you have experienced something similar. 当某些人在预定以及阅读许多个人理财客的时候,我发现许多客里都能看到有一个麻烦大家都很乐意去惹。作为一个努力工作以及努力存钱的人,我已经存了足够退休养老的钱以及每年都交足够的公积金。我现在没有到达可以买得起陀飞轮腕表的工资水平,但是请相信我如果一旦我有能力我一定会买的。我还每月为我的三个孩子在529计划基金里交钱。每年教育慈善基金和我孩子的家庭教师协会也从我那里得到了不小的捐助。这样交了几十年的钱之后,我意识到我喜欢上了攒钱这个想法。我已经为我的抵押贷款存了一笔钱,现在十五年的贷款我把它缩短到了8年付清,现在还有一年我就付清了。我还有一些经受了不稳定经济震荡的永久资产。我很可怜,对吗?令我惊讶的是我第一次发现我可以随心所欲的做我想做的事情,但是我却不知道该做什么。对此我根本没有准备。经过了十五年的努力攒钱,我发现花钱竟然不能带给我原本我认为应该有的快乐。认为我做的不对?车抛锚不用担心或者随心所欲地买套套装都很令我感到满意。因为我的房子即将正真属于我的所以我更加爱我的房子了。我最喜欢的奢侈享受是让别人为我洗衣。取、洗、叠、送整个务按照每磅一美元计算。我知道不值那价,不过我和我的生活不能忍受自己洗衣的日子。所有的“存友”们注意了,你必须搞清楚你攒钱是为了啥。对于我来说就是为了早点退休,我25岁就有这打算了。然而我现在都快40了,我发现我喜欢上了我的工作,而我的日子也不会过得无所事事。所以我开始存钱, 但是当你决定要在攒钱的时候首先应该干嘛呢?以下是首先要考虑的7个问题:1. 一旦你手头的资金稳定下来你打算做什么2. 你下面将要以什么为重心3. 是什么让你开心4. 你的这些钱要怎么用?5. 在哪些方面我的攒钱计划很难做出相应的调整6. 随着时间的推移你的侧重点有哪些改变7. 最后,他们怎么样向好的方向改变我总是想着一旦我有了一定的经济实力我可以摆脱攒钱、节俭以及绞尽脑汁。然而,我越来越有一种感触:当你努力追求某样东西十五年之后,那样东西基本已经变得和你一样。谨慎地决定你到底要追求啥东西。如果你有同样的问题请给我留言。 /200803/30495Experts believe that machine translation good enough to replace advanced human translators will be widesp within five to 10 years, as language-processing technology has seen many breakthroughs in recent years, Xinhuanet.com reported on May 22.据新华网5月22日报道,由于近年来语言处理技术取得了多项突破,专家们相信,足以取代资深译员的机器翻译将在五至十年内普及。Zhou Ming, standing deputy dean of Microsoft Research Asia, made the statement in his keynote speech at the 2017 Global Artificial Intelligence Technology Conference, held in Beijing on May 22.5月22日,微软亚洲研究院常务副院长周明在于北京举行的2017全球人工智能技术大会上发表的主旨演讲中这样说道。Machine translation currently faces challenges that prevent it from reaching the standards of professional translation, Zhou noted.周明指出,当前,机器翻译面临着各种挑战,这使得其无法达到专业翻译的标准。However, he also pointed out that several technology companies are now focusing on machine translation, and have aly made great progress.不过他也指出,现在好几家技术公司正在主攻机器翻译,且已取得很大进展。Google released its translation system in September 2016, based on recurrent neural networks.2016年9月,谷歌公司发布了自己基于递归神经网络的翻译系统。In addition, the artificial intelligence team at Facebook claimed to have achieved the highest accuracy yet in machine translation by using brand new neural network technology, with a translating speed nine times that of Google.此外,脸书的人工智能团队宣称,通过使用新型神经网络技术,已经实现了迄今最为准确的机器翻译,翻译速度为谷歌的九倍。Apart from translation, Zhou speculated that language-processing technology, integrated with other artificial intelligence, could be applied in many fields including education, medicine and driverless cars in the near future.周明预测,除了翻译,语言处理技术和其它人工智能,在未来还可应用于包括教育、药物和无人驾驶在内的很多领域。 /201705/511988詹妮佛#8226;加纳当选《魅力》杂志“年度女性”Jennifer Garner has been named Glamour magazine's Woman of the Year.詹妮佛#8226;加纳最近当选为著名时尚杂志《魅力》的“年度女性”。The Juno actress graces the cover of the US publication in an exquisite floor-sweeping backless turquoise gown for the November issue honouring fantastic females.这位天后级演员荣登美国时尚杂志《魅力》11月号的封面,照片上的她身穿一袭露背曳地绿松色华美礼。这期杂志专门向不平凡的女性致敬。The 35-year-old star - who has a 22-month old daughter, Violet, with husband Ben Affleck - has been recognised as a shining example of how to juggle a successful career and a happy family life with style and elegance.詹妮弗今年35岁,她的女儿维奥莱特22个月大。一直以来,她和丈夫本#8226;阿弗莱克被公认为是拥有成功事业与幸福家庭的完美典范。The former Alias star will be honoured at a glitzy event at New York's Lincoln Centre on November 5.11月5日,在纽约林肯艺术中心将举行盛大的颁奖礼。届时,这位曾经的“双面女间谍”将获此殊荣。Nobel-prize winning novelist Toni Morrison and golfer Lorena Ochoa are among 12 other women who will also be celebrated at the glamorous event.这次盛会还将向获奖的其他12名女性颁奖,其中包括诺贝尔奖得主、长篇小说家托妮#8226;莫里森和高尔夫球运动员罗瑞娜#8226;奥乔亚。Oscar-nominated actress Abigail Breslin, 11, will be honoured at the ceremony after being named as the first ever Girl of the Year.年仅11岁、曾获奥斯卡奖提名的童星艾碧姬#8226;布丝莲将获得有史以来第一次颁发的“年度女孩”殊荣。In June, Victoria Beckham was named UK Glamour magazine's Woman of the Year.今年六月,维多利亚#8226;贝克汉姆被英国《魅力》杂志评为年度女性。The Spice Girl, who also won Entrepreneur of the Year, attended the London event dressed in a corset and pair of frilly knickers.辣身穿束腹紧身衣和镶褶边灯笼裤出席在伦敦举办的颁奖礼,她同时获得“年度企业家”称号。Somaly Mam - a "modern-day saint" who devoted her life to rescuing girls from sex slavery - was named the US Glamour magazine's Woman of the Year in 2006.柬埔寨人权女斗士玛姆有“现代圣人”之称,她将毕生精力用于拯救沦为性奴力的女孩。她在2006年被美国《魅力》杂志评为“年度女性”。 /200803/32750




  This month, the European Parliament voted in favour of a resolution to create a new ethical-legal framework for robots. The Commission does not have to follow the parliament’s recommendations, but if it refuses it will have to explain why.欧洲议会(European Parliament)本月通过一项决议,其内容是建立针对机器人的新的伦理-法律框架。欧盟委员会不必遵循前者的建议,但如果拒绝,它必须解释原因。The basic idea is reasonable. Today, we spend increasing amounts of time in the infosphere. In this digital ocean, robots are the real natives: we scuba dive, they are like fish. Robots of all kinds will multiply and proliferate, making the infosphere even more their own element. Add artificial intelligence, smartphones, cloud computing, big data, machine learning and the internet of things, and it becomes obvious that there is no time to waste.基本理念是合理的。当今,我们在信息空间花费的时间日益增多。在这个数字海洋里,机器人才是真正的本地人:我们戴着水肺潜水,而它们就像鱼一样。各种各样的机器人将会迅速增加和繁殖,使信息空间在更大程度上成为它们如鱼得水的环境。再加上人工智能、智能手机、云计算、大数据、机器学习和物联网,显然没有时间可以浪费了。We are laying down foundations for the mature information societies of the near future, so we need new ethical frameworks to determine which forms of artificial agency we are happy to see flourishing in them. Against this background, the EU’s initiative provokes mixed feelings: excitement at the aspiration but disappointment at the implementation. There is too much fantasy and too little realism.我们正在为不久的将来的成熟信息社会奠定基础,因此我们需要新的伦理框架来确定:我们乐于看到什么形式的人工能动性在那样的社会绽放?在这样的背景下,欧盟的倡议让人喜忧参半:既有对抱负的激动,也有对实施的失望。幻想太多,现实太少。Consider two key issues: jobs and responsibilities. Robots replace human workers. Retraining unemployed people was never easy, but it is more challenging now that technological disruption is sping so rapidly, widely and unpredictably. There will be many new forms of employment in other corners of the infosphere — think of how many people have opened virtual shops on eBay. But new and different skills will be needed. More education and a universal basic income may mitigate the impact of robotics on the labour market.想想两个关键问题:工作岗位和责任。机器人取代人类劳动者。重新培训失业人员从来都不是一件容易的事情,而随着科技造成的扰乱如此迅速蔓延、影响广泛和不可预测,这变得更具挑战性。在信息空间的其他角落将出现许多新的就业形式——想想有多少人在eBay上开了虚拟商店。但人们将需要新的、不同的技能。增加教育机会和实行全民基本收入或许可以缓解机器人对劳动市场的影响。Society will need more resources. Unfortunately, robots do not pay taxes. And more profitable companies are unlikely to pay enough extra taxes to compensate for the loss of revenues. So robots cause a higher demand for taxpayers’ money and a lower supply of it.社会将需要更多资源。遗憾的是,机器人不交税。而比较盈利的企业不太可能缴纳足够多的额外税款来补偿财政收入的损失。也就是说,机器人带来对纳税人资金的更高需求,却也带来更少的税收收入。How can one get out of this tailspin? The report correctly identifies the problem. But its original recommendation of a robo tax on companies that employ robots — a proposal that did not survive into the final text approved the parliament — may not be feasible, for what counts as a robot? It may also work as a disincentive to innovation.如何摆脱这种困境?该报告正确地界定了这个难题。但其原本提出的方案(对使用机器人的企业征收“机器人税”;该提案未能进入议会通过的最终文本)或许并不可行,因为什么才算机器人呢?这还可能阻碍创新。And where should we allocate legal responsibilities? If my robot breaks my neighbour’s window, who is responsible? The company who produced it, the shop who sold it, I the owner, or the robot itself — if it has become completely autonomous through a learning process, capable of intelligent action? The report suggests a “specific legal status” for more advanced robots, as “electronic persons responsible for making good any damage they may cause”, which has been approved in the final document. So companies may not pay a robo tax and may not even be liable for some kinds of robots. This is a mistake.此外,我们如何分配法律责任?如果我的机器人打破了我邻居的窗户,谁该为此负责?生产这台机器人的公司、销售这台机器人的商店、我这个所有者、还是机器人自己——如果它通过学习过程,变得完全自主,能够做出智能行动?报告建议,对比较先进的机器人赋予一种“特殊的法律地位”,将它们视为“有责任赔偿它们可能引起的任何损失的电子人”,这一点在最终的文件得到认可。这样一来,企业或许无需缴纳机器人税,甚至可能无需对某些机器人承担赔偿责任。这是一个错误。There is no need to adopt science fiction solutions to solve practical problems of legal liability. Jurisprudence aly provides a solution.没必要用科幻小说里的解决方案来解决法律责任归属的实际问题。法理学已经提供了一个解决方案。If robots become as good as human agents — think of the droids in Star Wars — we can adapt rules as old as Roman law, in which the owner of enslaved persons is responsible for any damage. As the Romans knew, attributing some kind of legal personality to robots (or slaves) would relieve those who should control them of their responsibilities. And how would rights be attributed? Do robots have the right to own data? Should they be “liberated”?如果机器人变得像人类行为人一样优秀——想想《星球大战》(Star Wars)里的机器人——那么我们可以借鉴罗马法这样的古老规则。罗马法规定奴隶的主人要对奴隶造成的任何损坏负责。正如罗马人看到的,将某种法律人格赋予机器人(或者奴隶)会让那些应该控制它们(他们)的人逃脱责任。而且,权利又该如何归属?机器人有权利拥有数据吗?它们应该被“解放”吗?It may be fun to speculate about such questions, but it is also distracting and irresponsible, given the pressing issues at hand. We are stuck in the wrong conceptual framework. The debate is not about robots but about us, and the kind of infosphere we want to create. We need less science fiction and more philosophy.围绕这些问题进行猜测也许很有趣,但考虑到当前面临的迫切问题,这也是让人分心和不负责任的。我们陷入了错误的概念框架。这场辩论与机器人无关,而与我们有关,与我们想要创建什么样的信息空间有关。我们需要少一些科幻小说,多一些哲学。 /201702/494584


  Athens (雅典):The City Of Jasmines (茉莉花城)   Berne (伯尔尼):The City Of Clocks And Watches (钟表城)   Brazil (巴西):The Country Of Coffee (咖啡国)   Canada (加拿大):The Country Of Maple Leaves (枫叶国)   Ecuador (厄瓜多尔):The Equatorial Country (赤道国)(由于赤道横贯厄瓜多尔国境,再加上在西班牙文中"厄瓜多尔"的意思就是“赤道”,因此厄瓜多尔拥有“赤道国”的雅称。)  Egypt (埃及):The Country Of The Pyramids (金字塔国)   Ethiopia (埃塞俄比亚):The Barefoot Country (赤足国)   Ghana (加纳):The Country Of Cocoa (可可国)   Cuba (古巴):The Country Of Sugarcane (甘蔗国)  Japan (日本):The Country Of Cherries (樱花国)   Jerusalem (耶路撒冷):The Holy City (圣城)   Lima (利马):The City Of Drought (干旱城)   London (伦敦):The City Of Fog (雾都)   Lusaka (卢莎卡):The City Of Copper (铜城)   Malaysia (马来西亚):The Rubber Country (橡胶国)   Mexico (墨西哥):The Cactus Country (仙人掌国)   Mexico City (墨西哥城):The City Of Frescoes (壁画之都)(墨西哥城,以画迷人,素有“壁画之都”之称。)   New York (纽约):Big Apple (大苹果城)   Panama (巴拿马):The Butterfly Country(蝴蝶国)  Singapore (新加坡):The Country Of Gardens (花园国)   Tunisia (突尼斯):The Olive Country (橄榄国)   Venice ():The City Of Water (水城)   Washington(华盛顿):The City Of Snow (雪城)   Wellington (惠灵顿):The City Of Wind (风城)   Bulgaria(保加利亚):The Country of Roses(玫瑰之国)   Vienna(维也纳):The City of Music(音乐之都)   Pagan(缅甸蒲甘城):The Temple City(寺庙之城) /200803/28675

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